A prospective study of morphological pattern of anemia at a tertiary care centre
Keywords:Anaemia, CBC and PBP, microcytic hypochromic.
Introduction: Anaemia is a medical condition in which the haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and erythrocyte count are lower than the normal range. The normal range of Hb and RBCs in general vary between males and females, it is defined as a Hb level of <13.5 g/dL and <12.0 g/dL in adult males and females respectively. The main causes of anaemia are a decrease in RBCs, insufficient Hb synthesis or increased RBCs destruction, and the primary cause is an iron deficiency. Materials and Methods: A hospital based observational study was carried out at Department of Pathology, Vardhman Institute of Medical Sciences, Pawapuri, Nalanda, Bihar, India from October 2020 to September 2021. 250 patients were evaluated for morphological pattern of anaemia based on red cell indices, peripheral smear, and leukocyte and platelet parameters. Anaemia was defined according to WHO criteria as haemoglobin concentration lower than 13 g/dL in men and 12 g/dL in women. Results: The results of CBC and PBP showed that 72 (29%), 138 (55%), and 40 (16%) of the patients had normocytic normochromic, microcytic hypochromic and macrocytic pattern of anaemia respectively [Table 1]. The gender wise classification of the patterns revealed that 44 male patients and 28 female patients had normocytic normochromic patterns, while 105 female patients and 33 male patients had microcytic hypochromic patterns whereas 23 males patients and 17 cases of female patients showed macrocytic pattern [Table 2]. Conclusion: In our present study, adolescent women were found to have high prevalence of anemia. Since anemia is more prevalent among low socio-economic groups, the higher diagnostic tests lead to financial burden to the patients. The study of basic blood parameters and peripheral smear examination are less expensive and mandatory in the work up of anemia. Morphological patterns of anemia reflects the underlying etiology, the study of which would ensure benefits in the early detection and appropriate treatment. Iron deficiency anemia being a nutritional anemia which can be prevented by improving nutritional status, creating awareness and educating people.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Sujeet Kumar, Dilip Kumar, Imtiaz Ahmad, Tripurari
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